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Introduction to DBMS

In our daily life we encounter several activities that involves some interaction with database. For example: In hotel reservation, in grocery stores, in bank, in online shopping these activities involve someone or some computer program to access Database.

This article will help you to understand the whole concept of DBMS by the following steps:


By Data, we mean known facts that can be recorded and that have implicit meaning. For example, consider the names, telephone numbers, and addresses of the people you know. You may have recorded this data in an indexed address book, or on a diskette, using a personal computer and software such as Microsoft ACCESS, or EXCEL.


A Database is a systematic collection of structured data to make it easily accessible and manageable. Database can be of any size and complexity. Database support storage and manipulation of data.

For example:

o consider a company’s registry. All details of its product such as products type, price, shipment states etc. are entered in a single file. We can get the details of products in this file. This is called a database where we can access the information of any product.

o Another example is Instagram, it needs to store, manipulate and present data related to members, their activities, friends, messages and lot more.

Types of database

There are different kinds of database that are important.

1.Relational Database

2.Distributed Database

3.Cloud Database

4.No-SQL Database

5.Graph Database

6.Object Oriented Database

7.Operational Database

8.Centralized Database

Database Management System (DBMS)

A database is usually controlled by a Database Management System (DBMS). Database Management system is a general-purpose software system that facilitates the processes of defining, constructing, manipulating and sharing database among users and simple words loading, retrieving, protecting and manipulating the database over a long period of time is done by DBMS.

Thus collectively database and DBMS software is known as Database system. Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of information.


Suppose you run a small store with only 40 to 50 products for sale then data such as price, inventory (stock of goods), sales details etc. can be monitored easily by observation. But if you sale thousands of different items then you may require an automated system to keep track and manage all the resources and transactions. Thus we use DBMS to keep an eye on our every products related details such as price, inventory etc.

Characteristics of Database

§ Structured and Described Data: the database systems does not only contain the data but also the complete definition and description such as- the extent, the structure, the type and the format of all data and, additionally, the relationship between the data. This kind of stored data is called metadata ("data about data").

§ Transactions: A transaction is a bundle of actions which are done within a database to bring it from one consistent state to a new consistent state.

§ Data Persistence: Data persistence means that in a DBMS all data is maintained as long as it is not deleted explicitly.

§ Separation of Data and Applications: The access to the data and the metadata is entirely done by the DBMS. In this way all the applications can be totally separated from the data. Therefore database internal re-organisations or improvement of efficiency do not have any influence on the application software.


§ Data Redundancy and Inconsistency: By providing data access from a centralized DBMS, the need for redundancy is minimized. Related Data stored in different locations can be easily accessed without replicating data.

§ Easy access: Is provide through query language. The programs can be written in a way to make them independent of the physical characteristics of files in which data is stored.

§ Data Integrity: The Data Integrity rules can be defined to the DBMS at the time of defining the data or later. These rules will be automatically enforced every time data is inserted/modified.

§ Concurrent Access: A database system allows several users to access the database concurrently. Answering different questions from different users with the same (base) data is a central aspect of an information system.

§ Data independence:Application programs should be as independent as possible from details of data representation and storage.


§ Costs: It requires High initial investment in hardware, software and training

§ Complexity: A database system creates additional complexity and requirements. The supply and operation of a database management system with several users and databases is quite costly and demanding.

§ Trained Staff: A database system requires appropriately trained staff. Without a qualified database administrator nothing will work for long.

§ Lower Efficiency: A database system is a multi-use software which is often less efficient than specialized software which is produced and optimized exactly for one problem.

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